Kezina Svetlana Vladimirovna, Doctor of philological sciences, professor, sub-department of russian language
and methods of Russian language teaching, Penza Pedagogical Institute named after V. G. Belinskiy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), Sveta@zavarovsky.ru
Background. The main difficulty in studying of a word’s semantics evolution is the incompleteness of the actual material which is expressed in semantic laa language. Relevance of the real research is defined by an imperative need of expansion of an analytical base for the purpose of elimination of semantic lacunarity. Expansion of the analytical base happens generally thanks to the increase of different sources of material. The purpose of the present analysis is the reconstruction of semantic volume of a word at the expense of using a new method: simple «imposing » (appliqué) of the diachronic fields which relationship is established on the basis of the accounting of fluctuations of ancient consonants. The phenomenon of fluctuations of ancient consonants is considered by etymologists inconsistent and demands more active application.
Materials and methods. The research is conducted on a material of color loci of 8 diachronic fields of the heterogeneous type which dates back to Indo-European roots. The method of an appliqué of diachronic fields for the first time is applied to the reconstruction of semantic volume of color words on the basis of the accounting of ancient fluctuations of consonants (voicedvoiceless, velar, liquid), along with traditional methods of semantic reconstruction: additive, methods of semantic parallels and semantic extrapolation, comparativehistorical and historical and comparative.
Results. The accounting of ancient fluctuations of consonants allows to qualify separate groups of diachronic fields as related ones and on this basis to unite them for the purpose of semantic integration (completion, restoration), increasing thereby the volume of values of each word and a number of related words in the integrated diachronic fields. A result of application of a method of an appliqué of diachronic fields is filling of semantic lacunas in each of them and expansion of an etymological and word-building field.
Conclusions. The presented method allowed to increase the semantic volume of studied fields to actually expressed one in related languages that states natural and universal nature of development of semantic structure of a color word in a language continuum. It follows from this that the method of an appliqué of diachronic fields can be used as a reliable one in system and semasiological researches, and not only for an appliqué of ideographic loci, but also diachronic fields as a whole.
application, diachronic field, a color microsystem, a color locus, value, a semantic lacuna, semantic lacunas
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